Even though the Bhutanese have upheld strong environmental conservation ideals recognizing the values of ecosystem and its services for their well-being and sustenance putting monetary value to ecosystem services, especially to non-monetary services, has neither been a tradition nor a strong research focus. This has led to the undermining of the actual value of various ecosystems and ecosystem services and thereby the lack of identification and protection of these ecosystems.
Therefore, this target in synergy with Target 2 will focus on identifying key ecosystems and assessing their status and valuation of the services provided. An important element will also be to identify poor and vulnerable sections including women and children dependent on these ecosystem services. Subsequently, appropriate strategies will be put in place to safeguard these ecosystems and ecosystem services for the well being of Bhutanese as well as regional neighbors.